In Spain, the development of fashion was a parallel element (and also dependent) of a series of processes of social, economic and cultural, which were gaining strength since the fifties. The rural exodus, economic liberalization, migration to Europe, tourism development and industrialization were instrumental in the rise of consumer society, more open, with new values. During the first half of the twentieth century, concern for fashion fell only among the few urban middle class and upper class aspiring fashion clothing directly to Paris and London. The fashion was thus not among the basic concerns of the masses, always with economic hardship, much less in rural areas.
From the forties emerged couture firms in Spain, especially in Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, since the late fifties and early sixties, began to enter Spain the idea of prêt-à-porter ("ready to go"), combining fashion and mass production to lower prices. The "Nacionalcatolicismo" opposed to any change even in dress. The woman must be subject to strict family environment and established the Catholic Church and organizations like the "Sección Femenina". Follow the dictates of fashion, was a sinful behavior, contrary to the customs of the Francoist establishment.
"Mujer española, en estos momentos graves para la patria querida, tu norma no puede ser la frivolidad, sino la austeridad. Tu puesto no son los espectáculos, los paseos y los cafés, sino el templo y el hogar. Tus adornos no pueden ser las modas inmundas de la Francia judía y traidora, sino el recato y el pudor de la moral cristiana" (Fragment of a declaration of the Unión de Damas Diocesanas de Sevilla, under the influence of the Cardinal Segura. Cited in ABELLA, Rafael, 1996, pp. 114).
During the sixties, consolidation of urban society, the installment sale of appliances, the appearance of the mop and plastic household, the jukebox accessible to youth, the portable radio to listen to anywhere, etc., were elements that constituted true symbols of broad-and contradictory process of economic, social and cultural being mentioned. There was a material progress, with strong penetration of Anglo-Saxon culture, especially through music and television. It was a very complex phenomenon, like most historical processes.
Until well into the seventies, the production of clothing was based essentially on the work of a tailor and dressmaker. Prioritized the craftsmanship on the industrial, except the manufacture of certain garments, such as shirting, underwear, socks, panty hose, and work clothes. The family budget was limited fashion. In Spain there were many shops and the concept of "boutique" was not yet implemented. The clothes are not bought, was done in house. Triumphed magazines specializing in fashionable patterns who copied designs and passing to be available to housewives.
There were two pieces of clothing that once meant a true symbol of the times. The first, the bikini; the second, the miniskirt. The bikini penetrated our borders closely linked to tourism. It is very significant story of the mayor of Benidorm, that achieved in 1959 himself dictator facilitate the "legalization" of use on beaches of Benidorm: economic interests imposed to morality; however, until 1964 this two-piece garment was censored in the mass media, in principle be suitable only for the "Swedish" (that was the name given to the foreign tourists). The miniskirt in Spanish version, knee showed only, and received a strong boost by Massiel in Eurovision Festival (1968).
In this context, recordings of the ORTF were important as a means of communication of a more modern and opulent beyond the Pyrenees. A real horizon of immigrants and tourists who testified, paradise of the consumer society and material prosperity.
Parts of the programmes of quotation in Paris that deal with fashion in France
University of Alicante. University Library. Fonoteca