Title: "Entrevista tras el Congreso de Munich"  (Interview after the Congress in Munich)
Duration: 10 min., 18 seg.
Sound collection: Radio Paris. Ramírez/del Campo
Summaries: Entrevista a varios protagonistas del IV Congreso del Movimiento Europeo en Munich : los entrevistados son a: Dionisio Ridruejo, Jesús Prados Arrarte, Fernando Baeza Martos, el periodista Vicent Ventura i Beltran y Pablo Martí Zaro
In February 1962, the Spanish government requested the official opening of negotiations with the European Economic Community, considered an effective framework for the economic development as well as a symbol of the European unit. Four months later it was held in Munich the IV Congress of the European Movement, to which a Spanish delegation was invited. It was formed by 118 personalities of almost all the political spectrum of the dissidence and the opposition, both exiled or from the interior. Some renowned personalities, such as José María Gil Robles, Rodolfo Llopis, Prados Arrate, Dionisio Ridruejo, Salvador de Madariaga... Although there were not representatives of the PCE (Spanish Communist Party), as a result of the cold war. Through a communiqué, the people gathered in Munich approved a resolution that conditioned the adhesion of Spain to the development of a series of elements, along the lines of the Birkelbach Report: democratic institutions, individual freedom and freedom of speech, abolition of the censorship, sindical freedom and right to the strike, respect to the rights of opposition and creation of parties and recognition of the different natural communities.
It was a certainly moderated bill, but had great repercussion, especially when paying attention to the disproportionate reaction of the Regime, that described it as “an alliance between enemies and traitors”. As a repressive measure, Franco ordered immediately the suspension of the free residence in Spain (article 14 of the Fundamental Law of Spain, known as "Fuero de los Españoles"). Hence, some of the participants from the interior of the country were arrested, while many other were were exiled and confined and other were temporarily exiled..
At the same time, the Ministry of Information and Tourism organised an aggressive international campaign against what the Regime had baptised as “The Conspiracy of Munich”, a campaign in which all the Spanish media were forced to take part. The truth is that the event became a symbol of the reconciliation between the Spaniards, and showed the existence of a democratic culture among some groups of the dissidence, which shaped a moderate opposition. It began a stage of maximum collaboration between the exiled and the incipient inner dissidence. On the other hand, the Regime had showed its obscure and dictatorial nature to the international scene, so Franco's government became conscious that its entry in the European Economic Community had got more complicate. The need of a change of strategy became evident and favoured a ministerial restructuring, that amongst other things carried out an operation of “political make-up”, in a campaign of propaganda that would be known as the “apertura” (opening). Julián Antonio Ramírez remembers in his memories the context of the interviews:
“(...) When coming back from Germany, several participants of the journey come Paris and visited us in the House of the Radio (…). I remember, for instance, Prados Arrarte. But I specially recall Dionisio Ridruejo (…) Of course, I interviewed them, centering in the personality and evolution of Ridruejo. They explained me without hesitation the reasons and the consequences of their trip to Munich, and restated their critical posture regarding the Francoist regime. This raised such expectancy that an editor of the French-spoken newspaper asked me to help him to record another interview with them for his information (...)” (ICI Paris, 428-429).
University of Alicante. University Library. Fonoteca