Title: "Los ex-deportados y la poesia española" (The ex-deported and the Spanish poetry)
Duration: 13 min., 46 seg.
Sound collection: Radio Paris. Ramírez/del Campo
Summaries: Entre los actos que se llevan a cabo en París con motivo del 25 aniversario de la liberación de los campos de exterminio nazis, se celebra una conferencia, bajo el título "Poesia española" por el profesor Francisco Olmos García, profesor del Instituto Hispánico de la Sorbona de París, sobre la poesía española actual
The record deals about particularly tragic and relatively unknown episode in our recent history: the several thousands of Spanish people who suffered and died in the concentration camps of the German National Socialist regime. They were mostly exiled Republicans who had left Spain in 1939, and had decisively contributed to the defense of France against Germany. Somehow, many of them considered the global conflict just as a continuation of the struggle against fascism that had begun in Spain, so there were many volunteers, even if the French government also organized massive forced recruitments among the refugees. The precipitate French defeat would lead to thousands of them to be taken prisoners of the Third Reich. On the other hand, great numbers of Spanish people formed the resistance during the occupation (in fact, Julián Antonio Ramírez and Adelita del Campo were active members of it), where many of them were captured.
According to the latest calculations, between 1940 and 1945, the Nazi regime imprisoned nearly 9,000 Spanish Republicans in concentration camps, 7,347 of whom went to the camp of Mauthausen, in Austria, near Linz, representing the 60% of the prisoners, thereby Mauthausen is still known as "the camp of the Spaniards"; it's estimated that approximately 4,800 Spanish people were killed there. On the other hand, it must be highlighted the participation of Republican exiled in the liberation of the concentration camp. When Allies troops arrived, they were received with the following banner: "antifascist Spanish people greet the liberation forces". After Mauthausen there are the important camps of Dachau (Germany), with 751 Spanish, and Buchenwald (Germany), with 638, and then the rest of the camps.
So far it is known that Catalonia was the community with the largest number of Republican deportees (22%), followed by Andalucía (18%), Aragon (12%), Castilla La Mancha (10%), the Valencian Community (8%), the Community of Madrid (7%) and Murcia (5%). Once that Germany was defeated, this dubious episode was silenced in Spain for many years, until the edition of the work Los españoles y el Tercer Reich: recuerdos del triángulo azul" (The Spanish and the Third Reich: memories of the blue triangle), by Javier Alfaya, published in 1970 by the mythical publishing company Edicusa , in its collection "Los suplementos", and not without serious difficulty against the censorship of that time.
It should be highlighted as well the work of the “Federación Española de Deportados e Internados Políticos Víctimas del Fascismo” (FEDIP) (Spanish Federation of Deportees and Political Interns Victims of Fascism), a health care, but also cultural and political institution, initially promoted in Toulouse in 1945 on the initiative of the Spanish exiles, and developed thoughout France. Among other things, this federation managed to erect a monument, which thanks to the contributions of the partners, dedicated "In memory of all Spanish people who died for freedom (1939-1945)" in the historic cemetery of Pére-Lachaise, in Paris, was opened in 1969.
There are more than fifteen recordings on this subject throughout the catalog. They have fundamental importance for the recovery of our history and our memory.
University of Alicante. University Library. Fonoteca