Title: Interview with the artist José Bardasano
Duration: 13 min., 17 seg.
Sound collection: Radio Paris. Ramírez/del Campo
Summaries: Entrevista a José Bardasano pintor español sobre su vida fuera de España, su vuelta a Madrid y su obra
"Radio París", as a radio station committed with culture, payed special attention to the Spanish plastic artists. In fact, several recordings have been conserved dedicated to many of them, most of the characters with international fame that had to develop their activity out of Spain (Colmeiro, José Díaz, J.M. Díaz Caneja, Bardasano...). It is necessary to clarify that the exile of plastic artists of 1939 was important, but unlike what other intellectuals suffered, it wasn't treated in the general terms of a temporary phenomenon; in fact, the Spanish art of the first half of the XX century was elaborated out of Spain, apart from the “official” culture established, during the years previous to the war.
From the beginning of the XX century, a migratory flowing of artists began, with a very clear goal: the city of Paris, the worldwide capital of the artistic avant-gardes. Picasso, Julio González (sculptor), Pablo Gargallo, Juan Gris, Joan Miró, Vázquez Díaz, María Blurchard,... During the twenties, the artistic emigration was an incessant period of great influence of the Spanish art in the School of Paris (an influence already reivindicated by the hispanist Jean Cassou), nevertheless, the first organisations of artists and the first important exhibitions were born: they defended a committed art, with a clear social function. With the II Republic, the official mentality and the commitment with the society, with the left and with the republican values changed, it became very strong in the majority of artistic and intellectual sectors. The artistic groups from inside and outside the country remained in close contact.
With the explosion of the Civil War, the art became the main propaganda instrument for both sides. The poster design was in its period of main splendour and was hegemonic regarding the rest of arts (a field in which Martí Bas was a main figure). On the other hand, the Republic placed determined plastic artists leading organisms and artistic and cultural institutions (such as Picasso, who was in the forefront of the Museum del Prado). It was perhaps the only moment in history when the culture in Spain was sistematically administered by its major figures. Al same time, in order to attract attention to the republican cause, they took advantage of the International Exhibition of Art in Paris to celebrate the most important act of international propaganda during the war, being the big milestone of the contemporary Spanish art, and at the same time, its swan-song.
The victory of the rebellious meant the inexorable exile for those great artists, in fact, the artistic exiled of 1939 had two fundamental destinations: Latin America (mainly Mexico) but especially France (at least as the first port of call, obviously). Part of the exile left progressively (generally the previous emigration), although the majority had to escape in a hurry with the rest of refugees. There was a third group, formed by those who emigrated or autoexiliation as time went by. The implantation of the "New State", on the other hand, meant a step backwards in the plastic arts. The Francoist regime merely demanded the usual conservative academism -already out-of-date -, and that was all. In general terms, it was necessary to wait to the sixties to attend a renewal of the plastic arts in Spain, thanks to the influence of the international trends (in which the exiled always took part) and always apart from the margin of the "official" ideology, of course. "Radio París" was a clear way of penetration of those trends in our country.
University of Alicante. University Library. Fonoteca