Title: "Autocar: Alto en el camino" (Coach: Stop on the way)
Duration: 12 min.
Sound collection: Radio Paris. Ramírez/del Campo
Summaries: En una estación de servicio, entrevistas a pasajeros y conductores del autocar español a Valencia
Among the wide range of thematics offered by Radio París, one of the most important aspects was the one referred to the Spanish migratory phenomenon in the sixties(1961-1973), to which the radio station devoted its attention. They gave a vision of it as a global phenomenon, but without forgetting the ones who played a leading role, the migrants: their strategies, their motivations, their statements, the reality they found at their arrival and how they adapted to it . A process in which the emisora took sides, exerting as an organ of advicing and information, with functions beyond the pedagogical and the entertainment ones, favouring the integration of workers in the French culture, but without allowing their uprooting from their home land.
Therefore, there were numerous programmes related to the Spanish emigration, although there was one in concrete in which the emigrants were the central subject, titled “Españoles en Francia” (Spanish people in France), in charge of Julián Antonio Ramírez. A broadcast that certainly generated a lot of controversy, in which the migrant situation was introduced as a serious problem for the Spanish society, and therefore, as the evident failure of the economic politics of the Franco regime during the sixties. From the end of the fifties, aiming to adapt to the new times without changing the essential things, and taking advantage of the prosperity moment that the whole Europe was living, the dictatorship abandoned the autarchy and initiated a process of economic liberalisation, without any concession to the political freedoms. All this was accompanied by a new politics propaganda, centred in the opening or aperturismo (much more apparent than real), and it introduced the economic growth as one of the main achievements of the Franco regime, supposed defender of social welfare. It began the period of the opusdeist technocrat developmentalism.
Nevertheless, as well as the tourism turned out to be one of the main driving forces of the Spanish economy, the migratory phenomenon was also significant for Europe. In a double sense: as a source of currency, and as a escape valve for the so high degree of unemployment that the economic liberalisation was generating. The decade of the fifties had meant a rural exodus of nearly three million inhabitants to the cities, and along the decade of the sixties (between 1960 and 1973) it was calculated that more than two million crossed the Pyrenees and emigrated to different countries of Europe, such as Germany, France and Switzerland, attracted by better European wages, and under the auspices and the encouragement of the official organs. The emigrants were generally exploded and discriminated in the countries that received them, although perhaps with lower intensity than in France, where illegal immigration was promoted (with a posteriori regulations through labour agreements), and looked for their full integration in order to their later nationalisation. That way they avoided massive migration of people from their ancient colonies. On the other hand, there also was a bhugh number of seasonal workers who migrated to France, with more than a million who annually attended to the grape harvest. This migratory process ended abruptly with the world-wide economic crisis of 1973. Obviously, not the whole migratory process was negative, because the emigrants were in contact with modern and democratic societies, assumed part of their ideas, and favoured the impossibility that the Franco regime continued without Franco.
Analysing the whole process, and witnessing all of it, as it was the case of the exiled Spanish people who lived abroad -such as Julián Antonio Ramírez and Adelita del Campo-, this social crisis could hardly be considered an achievement. Radio París run into this reality because it was in the perfect location and in the suitable moment, and decided to register all those statements, almost always being critical with the Franco regime. "Españoles en Francia" constituted the registration of this almost forgotten reality that is needed to be rescued, as it is not only part of the memory and history of Spain but fo Europe as well. There were interviews to Spanish people of almost all the labour groups and monographs on the means of transport between France and Spain in which is appreciated their evolution, and a long so on during more than twenty recordings.
University of Alicante. University Library. Fonoteca