Title: [Cesc, Spanish humorous cartoonist. Interview]
Duration: 13 min., 18 seg.
Sound collection: Radio Paris. Ramírez/del Campo
Summaries: Entrevista sobre su obra al dibujante humorístico Cesc con motivo de una exposición en Galere 3 en París
In Spain, during the 40s and the 50s, graphic humour was limited by censorship, when not directly led by slogan, as it was common in the press of the time, under the Press Law of 1938, that emerged during the Civil War. During the 60s, however, the situation changed substantially, especially thanks to a new regulation, the Press and Printing Law of 1966. And although the censorship and cultural control remained in practice, there was a slight and effective expansion of the narrow margins of what could be published. That was one of the main circumstances that made it possible to use humor as a weapon of political combat, or at least, as an instrument of criticism and socio-political reflection in a more direct way. Thus, the 60s saw the birth of the modern anthologies of political humor - of very prominent specific authors-, published and articulated as true author essays, with a well structured ideological burden that had often gone unnoticed in the day to day of the press.
In "Radio Paris" the testimony of two graphic artists of great renown during those years is preserved. The first of them, interviewed in 1973, was the Barcelonan Francesc Vilas Pedruel, better known as Cesc. The interview was focused on an exhibition of his drawings in Paris. Deceased in 2006, Cesc was a constant presence in the Barcelona press for nearly half a century (began publishing in the press in 1952), repressed frequently by the Francoist censorship. He began in the Diario de Barcelona, followed in Tele/eXprés (1964), later in El Correo Catalán, and finally in Avui (from its appearance in 1976 until 1989). He was also linked - among others - to Serra d'Or, Gaceta ilustrada, Mundo, Por favor, Nacional Show and Cavall Fort (children's magazine) and also some international weeklies. He was also a poster artist and painter. With a realistic and bitter style, his recurrent themes were his denunciation of social inequalities, and the nonsense of the individual in the face of the vortex of supposed modernity.
The second graphic artist of which an interview is preserved is Andrés Vázquez de Sola (San Roque, Cádiz, 1927), known especially for his role as a draftsman. Educated in a conservative environment, his position was radicalized until becoming a PCE militant. Victim of the Francoist repression, he abandoned his collaborations in TVE and the newspaper Madrid and fled into exile on foot and with scarce resources. He was a personal friend of Julián Antonio Ramírez, who recalls in his memoirs the moment of their meeting:
"Vázquez de Sola then resided in a municipality on the southern outskirts of Paris (...)." The cartoonist had settled economically by consolidating his collaboration in Le Canard Enchainé, the most important satirical newspaper in France. We were friends (and still are) since I had a conversation with him on the radio when he arrived in France, fled from Spain, at the beginning of the 70s. What he told me on that occasion moved me, especially when he told me that he had entered clandestinely through the central part of the Pyrenees (...). "And you know why?" - he added. "Because when I say goodbye to Spain I wanted to do it from Jaca, in homage to Galán y García Hernández, the Republican heroes who rose up there". It left me astonished. It had been a while since I had heard of that event in the history of Spain. For him, who did not live it, the feat of Jaca in 1930 deserved such a memory. It is the style of Vázquez de Sola"(Ici Paris, 344-355).
Vázquez de Sola was the same person who allowed him to carry out the interview with Tierno Galván, preserved in the catalogue of "Radio Paris". He worked with great success in Parisian and international publications of all political tendencies. In the same way, he collaborated with Ruedo Ibérico, the most important Spanish exile publisher. He is the author of a long list of books of satirical and irreverent humour. After the death of Franco suffered serious vicissitudes in Spain, coming to be prosecuted in the 80s to make satirical vignettes against NATO.
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