Title: Conference on the Spanish Catholic church
Duration: 33 min., 19 seg.
Sound collection: Radio Paris. Ramírez/del Campo
Summaries: Conferencia sobre la historia de la Iglesia Cristiana en España: se centra en las relaciones de poder de la Iglesia, su relación con el Estado y la intolerancia religiosa en España
Along the years sixty and first seventy (of the 20th century), produced in the Dictatorship a singular fact: the failure of the unit national-catholic. The Spanish Catholic Church had been a fundamental pillar of the Franco regime. In fact, it awarded character of "crusade" to the rebellion against the Republican State during the Civil War, and conceded wide privileges to the Dictator. However, from the Ecumenical Vatican Council II (1962-1965), some sectors of the same will initiate a posture of dissidence increasingly radical with the dictatorship. It began with an incipient implication of Catholics seculars, priests and religious. The attitude of Pablo VI (whose nomination supposed "a vase of cold water" for Franco) and the resolutions of the Council (in favour of the democracy and the unions), broke the traditional understanding between the Church and the Regime.
There were several factors turned the situation in a political problem of first order: on the one hand, the increase of priests (in general, young), described as "progressive" -that is to say, socially committed, in accordance with the Council- and "separatists" -identified with the peripheral nationalisms-. It was the period of the "working cures". The problems stressed to measure that the episcopate renewed, assuming some of these postures, although out of shy form. All this was encouraged by the Vatican's policy, increasingly faced with the dictatorship. Like this, this crisis affected directly to the same essence of the Franco regime like regime confesional. Also it is necessary to highlight the social commitment of the members of the skilled movements of Catholic Action (HOAC and JOC, especially), as well as of the secular militants, whose critical attitude towards the injustices of the dictatorship took them to be repressed in the end of the decade.
In case it was little, in September of 1971, the Conjoint Assembly of Bishops and Priests, did a statement self-criticism on the posture of the Church during the war, asking pardon and calling to the reconciliation between all the Spaniards. Front to all this, the Franco regime felt powerless. To Vicente Enrique y Tarancón and other seven recently appointed bishops, arrived them to consider like "hierarchies disaffected". In this context, the case "Añoveros", in March of 1974, was a high point of the tension: Monseñor Añoveros, Bishop of Bilbao, pronounced a homily of Basque nationalist character, what cost him the expulsion. The credibility and the image of the government (alleged "opening") it resulted very damaged. The split of the national-catholic unit was baptised by those who integrated and supported the Dictatorship like "the betrayal of the clergymen". There Was even an anticlerical movement of extreme right, and violent character.
¿What occurred with the clerical and social sectors more reactionary? In general terms, were grouped around fundamentalist spirituality associations, as the Priestly Fraternity (founded by the French archbishop Marcel Lefevbre in 1970) and the Opus Dei (a secular institute founded in 1928 by José María Escrivá), totally contrary to the Vatican II. The technocrats of the Opus Dei had exerted a predominant political paper between 1957 and 1973, in the successive governments of Franco, carrying the initiative in the economic subjects (went the artífices of the economic liberalisation and the "developmentalism") and marking the direction of good part of the political reforms (aimed at the modernization and institutionalization of the regime), under the auspices of the Admiral Carrero Blanco.
They formed an association of common discipline -to the margin of the Hierarchy and of the rest of Catholic groups-, had to conquer the power taking positions in key places of the Administration. Reason by which, no only received critical from the exile and the inner dissidence, but also of the rest of factions of the own regime, beginning by Falange, but also of the rest of Catholic groups. In the publisher 'Ruedo Ibérico' (one of the main from exile in France, whose books circulated clandestinely in Spain), there were two especially controversial books: 'The Opus Dei in Spain' (Paris, 1968), of Daniel Artigues (pseudonym of Jean Bécarud) and 'The prodigious adventure of Opus Dei' (Paris, 1971), of Jesús Ynfante.
University of Alicante. University library. Fonoteca