Título: [Fragmento de entrevista sobre la reconstrucción de Brest]
Duración: 4 min., 04 seg.
Fondo sonoro: Radio París. Ramírez/del Campo
In the sixties of the 20th century, France was placed at the forefront of avant-garde design, immersed in an unprecedented transformation process that affected all urban centres equally, with Paris in the lead. In fact, the remodeling of Paris was one more element of the policy of "Grandeur" of General de Gaulle, whose Administration started in 1965 the "Outline Director of Conditioning and Urban Planning of the Paris Region" (ODCUPPR), in a context in which France was receiving large numbers of immigrants. The operation in Les Halles was one of the most symbolic and controversial. In Les Halles was the old central market of Paris, constituted by the Baltard building, impressive example of nineteenth-century industrial architecture, composed of ten pavilions of steel, iron and cast iron. The market was moved to Rugis in 1969, the pavilions were demolished in September 1979 the new building, called Forum des Halles, was inaugurated. 40,000 square meters, made of glass and aluminum, was designed by the architects Claude Vasconi and Georges Pencreac'h.
In Spain, the process of urban development ran parallel that of the rural exodus. The phenomenon of rural exodus occured in parallel to the migratory process of Spanish to Europe. Thus, between 1961 and 1975, it is estimated that more than 5.5 million Spanish changed their residence, as a demographic reflection of the changes in the economic structure. In this way, the population moved to industrial and service areas, mainly in search of a more dignified standard of living, being the city as a source of opportunities. This will have essentially two important consequences: the formation of a very important demographic territorial imbalance and the acceleration of urbanization process in the nuclei of population attraction. Thus, the demographic imbalance will cause, except for Madrid, most population centers of attraction are located in coastal areas, leaving the interior of the peninsula under a relative depopulation, and even absolute in some areas.
The acceleration of the urbanization pocess became a source of serious economic and social problems. Spanish urbanism entered an era of chaos. The growth of cities, especially large ones, was the result of a disorder, and of the very strong speculation that erupted. Furthermore, the construction was insufficient regarding the demand, the materials used in the new neighborhoods were of a very poor quality, depriving them of the most basic services, and creating marginality pockets and slum in peripheral areas. This chaotic urbanism based on speculation, is one of the legacies of Francoist development that still prevail. In spite of everything, and despite the fact that living conditions were quite precarious for immigrants from rural areas, their standard of living improved. In addition, one of the most representative social and political movements of the relationship between socio-economic changes and social conflict in Spain during the 1960s and 1970s (the twentieth century) emerged: the neighborhood protest.
Now, the chaotic and speculative urbanism, was one of the most evident and susceptible elements of criticism towards the developmentalist model of Franco's Spain, which is why it was used repeatedly and forcefully for the political dissidence of the Franco regime. For example, in the world avant-garde publishing highlighted the publication of works such as History of current urban planning: the linear city of Fernando de Terán (Science News, 1968). There were laws regulating urbanism, and laws that protected in turn elements of historical heritage and the environment. What happens is that they were not applied, given the widespread corruption in the Administration and the Francoist authorities.
University of Alicante. University library. Music Library